Anti-Microbial Peptides: Focus on LL-37

Cathelicidins form a distinct class of proteins that are key components of the innate and adaptive immune response. They also play a role in apoptosis, inflammation, phagocytosis and angiogenesis. The hallmark of the cathelicidin family of proteins is the presence of a highly conserved cathelin domain. Cathelicidins are expressed as inactive precursor proteins and their proteolytic cleavage leads to the release of active mature peptides ranging from 12 to 88 amino acids. The dominant mature cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) is LL-37 in humans, and cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in rodents.

The LL-37 peptide is a 37-residue with two leucine residues at the N-terminus. LL-37 contains an N-terminal helical structure and a flexible C-terminal region. LL-37 belongs to the class of α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMPs) and possesses amphipathic properties. The bioactive peptides exhibit a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. LL-37 can interact with invading pathogens, permeabilise the membranes and subsequently neutralise the activities of endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide.

Cathelicidin peptides can act directly and indirectly to regulate the activity of various cells in the immune system. LL-37 is a multifunctional signalling peptide that possesses various immunomodulatory activities. Depending on the environment and the stage of disease pathogenesis, LL-37 can exhibit both pro-and anti-inflammatory activity. A multitude of receptors recognize LL-37, where it can stabilize and trigger their activity and regulate downstream immunoregulatory mediators.  LL-37 can also induce cytokines and chemokines release and acts as a potent chemoattractant and an adjuvant.

Available to order from our Discovery® catalogue:

LL-37 acid (catalogue number: crb1000007)

LL-37 amide (catalogue number: crb1000864)

Labelled LL-37 peptides available soon

Biotin-LL-37 (catalogue number: crb1000836)

[5-FAM]-LL-37 (catalogue number: crb1000837)

Fragments

LL13-37 (catalogue number: crb1000034)

LL17-29 (catalogue number: crb1000035)

LL17-32 (catalogue number: crb1000036)

Mouse

CRAMP (1-39) (catalogue number: crb1000262)

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