The CEF peptide pool contains peptides that are all 8-12 amino acids long. The sequences are determined from the analysis of the proteins in various different viruses, such as Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Influenza A virus.
These peptides contain antigenic properties that are reflective of the virus from which they are derived. Therefore, they are suitable epitopes for CD8+ T cells and can be used to stimulate the release of IFNg, IL-2 and Granzyme B. IFNg, IL-2 and Granzyme B are all involved in the activation of the immune response to viral infections. IFNg promotes macrophage activity and coordinates lymphocyte-endothelium interactions, IL-2 is an interleukin that is capable of activating lymphocytes and Granzyme B mediates apoptosis of infected cells. Additionally, each sequence is designed so that it acts on a unique HLA cell type.
Clinically, the function of the peptides and their ability to stimulate an immune response means that they can be used as positive controls in certain assays, such as ELISpot and FluoroSpot.