Appetite Peptides

Appetite control originates from the hypothalamus where an appetite stimulatory and an appetite inhibitory circuit oppose each other, each influenced by peripheral hormones that provide feedback on energy intake and expenditure. Orexigenic neurotransmitters promote appetite while anorexigenic neurotransmitters decrease it. Orexigenic peptides include neuropeptide Y, Agouti related peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, galanin, ghrelin and opioid peptides, anorexigenic peptides include α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART), neurotensin, leptin, insulin, peptide YY (3-36), pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin , amylin, cholecystokinin and bombesin.

Obesity in humans is a metabolic condition that is characterized by an excess of body fat to the extent that it has a detrimental effect on health. It results from a combination of low energy expenditure and high caloric intake although numerous susceptibility genes have been identified including some genetic syndromes. In addition, psychiatric illnesses have been associated with obesity. Uncontrolled obesity increases the risk of other diseases; the most common are type 2 diabetes and a variety of cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and stroke, as well as certain types of cancer.

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