Cell Biology

Cell biology is the study of the structure and function of the cell. Cell exist as two types, prokaryotic and eukaryotic.  Prokaryotic cells, which include bacteria, are much smaller than eukaryotic cells and lack a nucleus or other membrane bound organelle, making them the smallest form of life.  Eukaryotic cells can be unicellular or multicellular and include animal, plant, fungi, and protozoa cells.

Eukaryotic cells contain organelles of various shapes and sizes, including the nucleus (the site of genetic information storage), the nucleolus (the site of ribosomal RNA synthesis), the endoplasmic reticulum (which synthesises proteins to the Golgi apparatus), mitochondria (which produce energy or ATP), the Golgi apparatus (which processes and secretes proteins), the lysosome (which degrades external material or old organelles), ribosomes (which translate RNA to protein), the cytoskeleton (which anchors organelles within the cells), the cell membrane (a phospholipid bilayer), and centrioles, which separate chromosomes during cell division. 

Cellular processes are tightly controlled cascades of biochemical reactions and dysregulation of any one can lead to a range of pathologies including cancer, metabolic diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration.